Heart Rate Variability During Monochord- Induced Relaxation in Female Patients With Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy


  • Eun-Jeong Lee PhD
  • Joydeep Bhattacharya PhD




This study investigated the impact of monochord (MC) sounds, a type of archaic sound used in music therapy, on the heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. The HRV of patients was recorded during the first and last sessions of relaxation treatments. The time series of HRV was analyzed using methods based on the time and frequency domains. During MC-induced relaxation, low-frequency power and the ratio of low and high frequency were increased over sessions. How- ever, changes in low and high frequency lay in different directions during relaxation caused by progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) in each session. Different activities of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems were shown during relaxation caused by either listening to MC sounds or exercising PMR. It is necessary to further investigate the relationship between the physical and psychological states induced by certain relaxation methods and specific activity of HRV.

Author Biographies

Eun-Jeong Lee, PhD

Eun-Jeong Lee, PhD, is a music therapist in the Department of Psychooncology, Tumor Biology Center at the University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Joydeep Bhattacharya, PhD

Joydeep Bhattacharya, PhD, is a professor of psychology and the director of EEG Laboratory at Goldsmiths, University of London, New Cross, London, UK.




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