Musical Instrument Modifications for Individuals With Neurodevelopmental Disabilities


  • Yuezhou Yu BA
  • Warren M. Shadd BA
  • Kelly A. Kleifges
  • Linda A. Myers MD
  • Phillip L. Pearl MD



Music therapy is a systematic intervention that can benefit individuals with neurobehavioral disorders. The use of musical instruments is a central component of many clinical music therapy practices, and recent technological modifications to instruments have enhanced their acces

Author Biographies

Yuezhou Yu, BA

Yuezhou Yu, BA, is a clinical research assistant in the department of neurology at Children’s National Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA.

Warren M. Shadd, BA

Warren M. Shadd, BA, is a musician, piano technician, and owner of Shadd Pianos, Inc.

Kelly A. Kleifges

Kelly A. Kleifges is studying neuroscience and biochemical engineering at Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Linda A. Myers, MD

Linda A. Myers, MD, is an anesthesiologist in private practice in the Washington, DC, area.

Phillip L. Pearl, MD

Phillip L. Pearl, MD, is Chief of Neurology at Children’s National Medical Center and Professor of Neurology, Pediatrics, and Music at The George Washington University School of Medicine and Columbian College of Arts and Sciences in Washington, DC, USA.




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