Developing an air guitar group for an inpatient psychiatry unit
The phenomenon of air guitar has become increasingly popular in mainstream society and recognised as a potential means of enhancing one’s sense of mental well-being. It allows for engagement with music that involves physical activation and can be conducted in groups allowing for non-verbal socialisation. To date, there has been limited examination of its potential usefulness in therapeutic settings, including in mental health services. We describe the development of an air guitar group in an inpatient psychiatry service including an iterative approach to the design of sessions and the impact in terms of patient engagement and feedback. The format of the group evolved over time according to feedback from participants and staff involved in patient care on the unit. We found that the group successfully engaged patients of varying age, gender and diagnostic profiles and was perceived as a valuable addition to the inpatient therapeutic programme. Based upon our observations during this pilot study, we outline a suggested format for air guitar sessions that includes our experiences around selection of music, duration of sessions, use of props, managing the physical demands of sessions and ensuring participant safety. Future work can investigate the impact of air-guitar as a therapeutic activity in other settings (including community-based) and exploring how it can be best applied in combination with other therapeutic modalities for use in patients with differing diagnostic and demographic profiles.
Yalom ID, Leszcz M. The theory and practice of group psychotherapy (5th ed.). New York, NY: Basic Books, 2005.
Winship G, Hardy S. Perspectives on the prevalence and treatment of personality disorder. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 2007;14:148–154. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2850.2007.01057.x
Emond S, Rasmussen B. The status of psychiatric inpatient group therapy: past, present, and future. Social Work With Groups 2012;35:1, 68-91. doi: 10.1080/01609513.2011.553711
Prey JE, Woollen J, Wilcox L, Sackeim AD, Hripcsak G, Bakken S, Restaino S, Feiner S, Vawdrey DK. Patient engagement in the inpatient setting: a systematic review. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2014; 21: 742–750. doi:10.1136/amiajnl-2013-002141
O'Donovan A, O'Mahony J. Service users' experiences of a therapeutic group programme in an acute psychiatric inpatient unit. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs.2009;16:523-30. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2850.2009.01409.x.
Choi AN, Lee MS, Lim HJ. Effects of group music intervention on depression, anxiety, and relationships in psychiatric patients: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med. 2008;14:567-70. doi: 10.1089/acm.2008.0006.
Aalbers S, Fusar-Poli L, Freeman RE, Spreen M, Ket JCF, Vink AC, Maratos A, Crawford M, Chen XJ, Gold C. Music therapy for depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2017; Issue 11. Art. No.: CD004517. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004517.pub3
Peng SM, Koo M, Kuo JC. Effect of group music activity as an adjunctive therapy on psychotic symptoms in patients with acute schizophrenia. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2010;24:429-34. doi: 10.1016/j.apnu.2010.04.001
World Federation of Music Therapy. Supporting music therapy worldwide. What is music therapy? 2011. Available from http://www.wfmt.info/WFMT/About WFMT. World Federation of Music therapy., Version accessed 25th August 2018.
Edwards J. The Oxford Handbook of Music Therapy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016.
Wheeler BL. Music Therapy Handbook. New York, New York, USA: Guilford Publications, 2015.
Webster’s New World College Dictionary, 4th Edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2010.
Mole G, Appleby S. Better Living Through Air Guitar. Portrait books, 2005. ISBN10 080652846X
Pash E, Keller K. How to Stop Freaking the %#$@ Out. When Deep Breathing Doesn’t Work. Beavers Pond Press, 2018. ISBN: 9781592986729.
Moss H, Nolan E, O’Neill D. A Cure for the Soul? The Benefit of Live Music in the General Hospital. Ir Med J. 2007;100:634-6. PMID:18277736
Caspari S, Nåden D, Eriksson K. Why not ask the patient? An evaluation of the aesthetic surroudings in hospitals by patients. Quality Management in Health Care 2007;16:280-292. doi: 10.1097/01.QMH.0000281064.60849.a6
Carr C, Odell-Miller H,Priebe S. A Systematic Review of Music Therapy Practice and Outcomes with Acute Adult Psychiatric In-PatientsPLoS One. 2013; 8(8): e70252. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070252
Levitin DJ, Tirovolas AK. Current Advances in the Cognitive Neuroscience of Music. The Year in Cognitive Neuroscience 2009: Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1156: 211–231 (2009). doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04417.x
Lin ST, Yang P, Lai CY, Su YY, Yeh YC, Huang MF, Chen CC. Mental health implications of music: insight from neuroscientific and clinical studies. Harvard Rev Psychiatry 2011;19: 34-46. doi: 10.3109/10673229.2011.549769.
Yim J. Therapeutic benefits of laughter in mental health: A Theoretical Review. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2016; 239(3):243-9. doi: 10.1620/tjem.239.243.
Ansdell G, Meehan J. “Some light at the end of the tunnel”. Exploring users’ evidence of the effectiveness of music therapy in adult mental health settings. Music and Medicine 2010;2: 29–40 doi:10.1177/1943862109352482
MacDonald RAR. Music, health, and well-being: A review. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being. 2013;8:10.3402/qhw.v8i0.20635. doi:10.3402/qhw.v8i0.20635.
Mössler K, Chen X, Heldal TO, Gold C. Music therapy for people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Dec 7;(12):CD004025. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004025.pub3