The Effects of Music Therapy on the Prosocial Behaviors of Adults with Disabilities

Authors

  • Haley Rochelle Baumgarten Molloy College; Opportunities for Positive Growth, Long Island, New York, USA.
  • Barbara L Wheeler 1. Molloy College, Rockville Center, NY Adjunct Professor 2. Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ Professor Emerita

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47513/mmd.v8i3.475

Abstract

This pilot study investigated the use of music therapy to increase three specific prosocial behaviors in adults with disabilities attending a day habilitation program. The social skills addressed were (a) initiating conversation, (b) participating in reciprocal exchanges, and (c) expressing emotions. Fifteen participants between 21 and 46 years of age were selected through purposive sampling. Participants attended biweekly music therapy sessions for 30-45 minutes over a 6-week period. Sessions included interventions that encouraged learning about and using socially appropriate prosocial behaviors. These interventions consisted of musical interplay between therapist and participants, as well as interactive play among the participants. The parents and/or legal guardians of the participants were asked to assess the participants’ social behaviors prior to and following music therapy, using the Home and Community Social Behavior Scales (HCSBS). Data were collected from the participants using pre- and post-HCSBS assessments, and from the researcher and day program staff using a Likert scale designed specifically for this study. Participants who engaged in music therapy demonstrated an increase in prosocial behaviors, suggesting that participation in music therapy increased social skill development in adults with disabilities.

Spanish

 Los efectos de la Musicoterapia en las conductas prosociales de adultos con discapacidad.

Este estudio piloto investiga el uso de la musicoterapia para incrementar tres conductas prosociales específicas en adultos con discapacidad que asisten a programas diarios de habilitación. Las habilidades sociales  abordadas fueron : (a) inicio de conversación , (d) participación en intercambios recíprocos y (c) expresión de emociones. Se seleccionaron quince participantes de entre 21 y 46 años a través de un muestreo intencional. Los participantes asistieron a sesiones de musicoterapia de 30 a 45 minutos dos veces por semana por un periodo de 6 semanas. Las sesiones incluyeron intervenciones  que incentivaban el aprendizaje y el uso social de conductas prosociales apropiadas. Estas intervenciones consistían en interacciones musicales entre terapeuta y participantes, así como también juegos interactivos entre los participantes. Los padres y/o tutores legales de los participantes fueron consultados para evaluar las conductas sociales de los participantes previas y posteriores a musicoterapia, utilizando la Escala Home and Community Social Behavior Scale (HCSBS). Los datos fueron obtenidos: de los participantes usando las evaluaciones HCSBS pre y post musicoterapia y de los investigadores y personal del programa diario utilizando la escala Likert diseñada específicamente para este estudio. Aquellos participantes que se comprometieron con musicoterapia demostraron un incremento en sus conductas prosociales, lo que sugiere que la participación en musicoterapia incremento el desarrollo de habilidades sociales en adultos con discapacidades.

 Palabras Clave: Musicoterapia , adultos con discapacidad , conductas prosociales , habilidades sociales.

German

Die Auswirkungen von Musiktherapie auf das prosoziale Verhalten von Erwachsenen mit Behinderung

Abstract: Diese Pilotstudie untersuchte, wie der Einsatz von Musiktherapie drei spezifische prosoziale Verhaltensweisen behinderter Erwachsener in einer Tageseinrichtung verbessern kann. Die untersuchten sozialen Fähigkeiten waren (a) eine Unterhaltung zu beginnen, (b) an gegenseitigem Austausch teilzunehmen, (c) und Emotionen auszudrücken. 15 Teilnehmer im Alter zwischen 21 und 46  Jahren wurden durch gezieltes Sampling ausgewählt. Die Teilnehmer nahmen zweimal pro Woche über einen Zeitraum von 6 Wochen an Musiktherapiesitzungen von 30-45 Minuten teil.  Die Sitzungen beinhalteten Interventionen, die Lernen über und mithilfe sozial angemessener prosozialer Verhaltensweisen. Dies Interventionen bestanden aus musikalischem Spielen zwischen Therapeut und Teilnehmern,  und interaktives Spielen unter den Teilnehmern. Die Eltern u/o gesetzliche Betreuer der Teilnehmer wurden gebeten, das soziale Verhalten der Teilnehmer vor und nach der Musiktherapie mit der Home and Community Social Behavior Scales (HCSBS) zu bewerten. Die gesammelten Daten stammten von den pre- and post-HCSBS Assessments der Teilnehmer,  vom Forscher und dem Tagespersonal, die eine speziell für diese Studie entwickelte Likert -Skala benutzten. Die Teilnehmer an dem Musiktherapie-Programm zeigten eine Verbesserung  ihres prosozialen Verhaltens, was vermuten lässt, das die Teilnahme an Musiktherapie die Entwicklung sozialer Fähigkeiten bei Erwachsenen mit Behinderung erhöht.  

 Keywords: Musiktherapie, Erwachsene mit Behinderung, prosoziales Verhalten, soziale Fähigkeiten

Italian

 

GLI EFFETTI DELLA MUSICOTERAPIA NEI COMPORTAMENTI PRO-SOCIALI DI ADULTI CON DISABILITA`

 

Questo studio pilota ha studiato l’uso della musicoterapia per aumentare tre specifici comportamenti pro-sociali negli adulti con disabilità che frequentano un programma giornaliero di abilitazione. Le competenze sociali affrontate erano (a) l’avvio di una conversazone, (b) la partecipazione in scambi reciproci, (c) esprimere emozioni. Quindici partecipanti tra i 21 e i 46 anni di età sono stati selezionati attraverso un campionamento intenzionale. I partecipanti hanno partecipato a sessioni di musicoterapia bisettimanali per 30-45 minuti in un periodo di 6 settimane. Le sessioni includevano interventi che incoraggiavano ad apprendere l’uso di comportamenti pro-sociali socialmente appropriati. Questi interventi consistevano nell’interazione musicale tra terapeuta e partecipanti, cosi come il gioco interattivo tra i partecipanti. Ai parenti e/o i tutori legali dei partecipanti è stato chiesto di valutare il comportamento sociale dei partecipanti prima e dopo il trattamento musicoterapeutico, usando la Home and Community Social Behavior Scale (HCSBS). I dati dei partecipanti sono stati raccolti utilizzando assestamenti pre- e post-HCSBS, e dal personale di ricerca e dallo staff del programma giornaliero usando una scala Likert progettata specificatamente per questo studio. I partecipanti che si sono lasciati prendere dalla musicoterapia hanno dimostrato un aumento dei comportamenti pro-sociali, implicando che la partecipazione ai trattamenti di musicoterapia abbia aumentato lo sviluppo di abilita` sociali negli adulti con disabilità.

 

Parole Chiave: musicoterapia, adulti con disabilità, comportamenti prosociali, competenze sociali


Japanese

 障害者の向社会的行動における音楽療法の効果

この予備研究では、デイプログラムに参加している障害者に対して、3つの向社会的行動を向上させた音楽療法の活用について検証する。取り組まれた社会的スキルは、(a) 発話、 (b)相互的なやり取りへの参加、 (c)感情表現の3つである。21歳から46歳の15名が被験者として、有意サンプリングで選択された。被験者は、6週間にわたって隔週30分から45分の音楽療法セッションに参加した。セッションプログラムでは、向社会的行動を学び活用することを促進する介入を行った。これらの介入は、音楽療法士と対象者および対象者間との音楽的相互行為を含んでいる。被験者の親または法的介護者が、HCSBS (Home and Community Social Behavior Scales =家庭とコミュニティにおける社会行動評価尺度)を使って、音楽療法前後の社会行動を評価する。音楽療法前と後のHCSBSスコアと、 本研究のために特別に作成されたリッカート尺度を研究者とデイケアスタッフが付けた評価とを総合して、データが収集された。音楽療法活動への参加度が高かった被験者の方が、向社会的行動の増加を呈しており、障害者対象の音楽療法への参加が社会スキルを向上させることがわかった。

 

キーワード:音楽療法、障害者、向社会的行動、社会的スキル


Author Biographies

Haley Rochelle Baumgarten, Molloy College; Opportunities for Positive Growth, Long Island, New York, USA.

Haley Rochelle Baumgarten, MS, MT-BC is a full time music therapist with Opportunities for Positive Growth working with children and adults with developmental disabilities. She received her Masters of Science in Music Therapy from Molloy College and her Bachelors of Music in Music Therapy and Psychology from East Carolina University.

Barbara L Wheeler, 1. Molloy College, Rockville Center, NY Adjunct Professor 2. Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ Professor Emerita

Barbara L. Wheeler, PhD, MT-BC is Adjunct Professor at Molloy College, Professor Emerita at Montclair State University. She is active as an educator, presenter, editor and author.

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2016-07-31

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