COVID-19: Implications and considerations for NICU music therapy in Italy, Japan and Colombia

Mark Ettenberger, Barbara Sgobbi, Rieko Eguchi, Yenny Marcela Beltrán Ardila, Sergio Adolfo Torres Serrano, Maria Elena Bolis, Massimo Agosti



This article outlines the shifts in NICU music therapy due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy, Japan, and Colombia, from the beginning of the outbreak in each of the countries until September 2020. Detailed information will be provided on how the pandemic has changed hospital policies and has had an impact on the families and the music therapy services. Furthermore, the authors discuss current biosecurity protocols, parental visiting guidelines, telehealth strategies, and the financial impact of the pandemic. While the way healthcare workers and healthcare institutions cope with the current situation may be unique according to cultural and societal particularities in each country, many overlaps between the three countries were found.

Full Text:

 Subscribers Only



Worldometer on COVID-19., Octubre 17th, 2020, 2:30pm EST.

Abate SM, Ahmed Ali S, Mantfardo B, Basu B. Rate of Intensive Care Unit admission and outcomes among patients with coronavirus: A systematic review and Meta-analysis. PloS one. 2020 Jul 10;15(7):e0235653.

Armstrong RA, Kane AD, Cook TM. Outcomes from intensive care in patients with COVID‐19: a systematic review and meta‐analysis of observational studies. Anaesthesia. 2020 Jan 1.

Shaukat N, Ali DM, Razzak J. Physical and mental health impacts of COVID-19 on healthcare workers: a scoping review. International Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2020 Dec;13(1):1-8.

Spoorthy MS, Pratapa SK, Mahant S. Mental health problems faced by healthcare workers due to the COVID-19 pandemic–A review. Asian journal of psychiatry. 2020 Jun 1;51:102119.

Ying Y, Ruan L, Kong F, Zhu B, Ji Y, Lou Z. Mental health status among family members of health care workers in Ningbo, China, during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak: a cross-sectional study. BMC psychiatry. 2020 Dec;20(1):1-0.

Carvalho WB, Gibelli MA, Krebs VL, Calil VM, Johnston C. Expert recommendations for the care of newborns of mothers with COVID-19. Clinics. 2020;75.

Knight M, Bunch K, Vousden N, Morris E, Simpson N, Gale C, O’Brien P, Quigley M, Brocklehurst P, Kurinczuk JJ. Characteristics and outcomes of pregnant women admitted to hospital with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in UK: national population based cohort study. bmj. 2020 Jun 8;369.

Erdei C, Liu CH. The downstream effects of COVID-19: a call for supporting family wellbeing in the NICU. Journal of Perinatology. 2020 Jul 24:1-3.

Giordano F, Scarlata E, Baroni M, Gentile E, Puntillo F, Brienza N, Gesualdo L. Receptive music therapy to reduce stress and improve wellbeing in Italian clinical staff involved in COVID-19 pandemic: A preliminary study. The Arts in Psychotherapy. 2020 Sep 1;70:101688.

Motta Zanin G, Gentile E, Parisi A, Spasiano D. A Preliminary Evaluation of the Public Risk Perception Related to the COVID-19 Health Emergency in Italy. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2020 Jan;17(9):3024.

Italian National Statistical Institute.

Italian Government on COVID-19.

Italian Health Government on COVID-19., Octobre 1st 2020.

Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan. 2020. Available at Accessed September 10, 2020.

Office for Novel Coronavirus Disease Control, Cabinet Secretariat, Government of Japan. Available at Accessed September 10, 2020.

Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet. The Tokyo Organizing Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games. 2020. Available from Accessed September 10, 2020.

Rossetti A. Canga B. Environmental music therapy: rationale for ‘multi-individual’ music psychotherapy in modulation of the pain experience. In: Mondanaro JF, Sara GA, editors. Music and medicine: Integrative models in the treatment of pain. New York: Satchnote Press; 2013. p. 275-294.

Loewy J. NICU music therapy: song of kin as critical lullaby in research and practice. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2015 Mar;1337(1):178-85.

Ministry of Health and Social Protection (2020). Resolución 1774 del 6 de octubre de 2020.

World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. 2020. Available at Accessed October 3, 2020.

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Coronavirus disease 2019. 2020. Available at Accessed October 3, 2020.

American Music Therapy Association. Music therapy practice considerations with Covid-19 2020. Available at Accessed October 3, 2020.

Sheraton M, Deo N, Dutt T, Surani S, Hall-Flavin D, Kasyap R. Psychological effects of the COVID 19 pandemic on healthcare workers globally: A systematic review. Psychiatry Research. 2020 August 3. 292:113360.

Cox CL. ‘Health care heroes’: problems with media focus on heroism from healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Medical Ethics. 2020 June 16.46(8):510-513.

Choi KR, Records K, Low LK, Alhusen JL, Kenner C, Bloch JR, et al. Promotion of maternal-infant mental health and trauma-informed care during the COVID-19 pandemic. JOGNN. 2020 August 11.49: 409-415.

Sanders MR, Hall SL. Trauma-informed care in the newborn intensive care unit: promoting safety, security and connectedness. Journal of Perinatology. 2017 August 17. 38(1): 3-10.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

by The International Association for Music & Medicine