Efficacy of Pain Management: Integration versus Distraction

Joanne V. Loewy


The following is a position paper substantiating the recommendation for an integrative approach to evaluate, treat and manage the predictable and/or unpredictable experience of pain in medical procedures so frequently required for infants, children and adult patients. Although decades of articles in journals and texts support distraction as a recommendation for protecting and diffusing a patient’s experience of procedural pain, the rationale for thorough evaluation followed by suggestions for the provision of integration as a treatment option is described and considered as a best practice intervention.


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by The International Association for Music & Medicine